# Download Nurul Islam's An Introduction to Statistics and Probability for Free: A Review and Summary of the Book (PDF)

## An Introduction to Statistics and Probability by Nurul Islam PDF Free Download

If you are looking for a comprehensive and accessible textbook on statistics and probability, you might want to check out An Introduction to Statistics and Probability by Nurul Islam. This book covers all the essential topics in a clear and concise manner, with plenty of examples, exercises, and illustrations. In this article, we will give you an overview of what this book is about, why it is useful, what it covers, and how you can download it for free.

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## What is Statistics and Probability?

Statistics is a branch of mathematics that deals with collecting, organizing, analyzing, interpreting, and presenting data. It helps us to understand patterns, trends, relationships, variability, uncertainty, and inference in real-world phenomena. Statistics can be divided into two main categories: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics summarize and display data using tables, graphs, charts, measures, and indices. Inferential statistics use data from a sample to draw conclusions about a population or a process using techniques such as estimation, hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, correlation, regression, analysis of variance, chi-square tests, etc.

Probability is another branch of mathematics that deals with measuring the likelihood or chance of an event or outcome occurring. It helps us to quantify uncertainty, risk, randomness, variability, and inference in real-world phenomena. Probability can be expressed as a number between 0 and 1, where 0 means impossible and 1 means certain. Probability can be calculated using various rules, such as the addition rule, multiplication rule, conditional probability rule, Bayes' theorem, etc. Probability can also be used to describe the behavior and properties of random variables and their distributions.

## Why are Statistics and Probability important?

Statistics and probability are important because they enable us to make sense of data and information in various fields and domains. Some examples are:

In science and engineering, statistics and probability help us to design experiments, test hypotheses, analyze data, draw conclusions, and make predictions.

In business and economics, statistics and probability help us to make decisions, optimize processes, evaluate performance, forecast trends, and manage risks.

In medicine and health, statistics and probability help us to diagnose diseases, assess treatments, compare groups, and estimate survival rates.

In education and psychology, statistics and probability help us to measure abilities, attitudes, behaviors, and outcomes.

In social and political sciences, statistics and probability help us to conduct surveys, analyze opinions, study populations, and evaluate policies.

In sports and games, statistics and probability help us to measure performance, rank players, calculate odds, and devise strategies.

Statistics and probability also help us to develop critical thinking, problem-solving, and communication skills. They enable us to ask meaningful questions, collect relevant data, analyze data objectively, interpret results correctly, and communicate findings effectively.

## What are the main topics covered in the book?

The book An Introduction to Statistics and Probability by Nurul Islam is divided into 15 chapters. Each chapter covers a major topic in statistics and probability with subtopics. The book also includes appendices on mathematical review, statistical tables, answers to selected exercises, and a glossary of terms. Here is a summary of the contents and structure of the book:

### Statistics and its origin

This chapter gives a historical overview of the development and scope of statistics. It defines statistics as a science of data and explains its characteristics, uses, and importance. It also introduces the concepts of population and sample, sources of statistical data, distrust in statistics, and computer and statistics.

### Summarizing data

This chapter describes the methods and techniques for organizing and presenting data. It explains the meaning of data and the level of measurement. It distinguishes between variable and attribute. It shows how to summarize and present data using frequency distribution, cumulative frequency distribution, graphs, diagrams, etc. It also discusses the use of computers in summarizing data.

### Descriptive statistics

This chapter presents the measures and characteristics of central tendency, dispersion, and shape. It defines and compares the arithmetic mean, median, mode, geometric mean, harmonic mean, and other measures of average. It introduces the concepts of moments, skewness, kurtosis, box plot etc. It also explains the effects of changes in origin and scale on measures of central tendency and dispersion.

### Simple regression and correlation

This chapter introduces the concepts and methods of linear regression and correlation analysis. It defines regression as a technique for modeling the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. It explains how to use the least squares method to estimate the regression coefficients and how to partition the total variation in regression. It also defines correlation as a measure of the strength and direction of the linear relationship between two variables. It shows how to calculate the Pearson's correlation coefficient and the rank correlation coefficient. It also discusses some useful results and further aspects of correlation.

### Probability: a measure of uncertainty

This chapter explains the basic principles and rules of probability theory. It defines probability as a measure of uncertainty or likelihood of an event or outcome occurring. It reviews the set theory and its operations and laws. It introduces the concepts of random phenomenon, sample space, event, permutation, combination, odds, joint probability, conditional probability, independence, Bayes' theorem etc. It also provides some selected theorems and miscellaneous examples on probability.

### Random variables and its distributions

This chapter discusses the types and properties of random variables and their probability distributions. It defines a random variable as a function that assigns a numerical value to each outcome of a random phenomenon. It distinguishes between discrete and continuous random variables. It introduces some common discrete distributions, such as binomial, Poisson, geometric, negative binomial etc. It also introduces some common continuous distributions, such as uniform, normal, exponential, gamma etc. It explains how to calculate the mean, variance, standard deviation, and moment generating function of a random variable.

### Sampling distributions

### This chapter explores the sampling techniques and the distributions of sample statistics. It defines sampling as a process of selecting a subset of elements from a population. It distinguishes between probability sampling and non-probability sampling methods. It introduces some common probability sampling methods, such as simple random sampling, stratified sampling, systematic sampling, cluster sampling etc. It also introduces some common non-probability sampling methods, such as convenience sampling, judgment sampling, Estimation

This chapter introduces the concepts and methods of point and interval estimation. It defines point estimation as a process of finding a single value that best represents a population parameter. It defines interval estimation as a process of finding a range of values that contains a population parameter with a certain level of confidence. It explains how to construct and interpret confidence intervals for the mean, proportion, difference of means, difference of proportions, etc. It also discusses the factors that affect the width of a confidence interval and how to determine the sample size for a desired margin of error.

### Testing hypotheses

This chapter presents the logic and procedures of hypothesis testing. It defines hypothesis testing as a process of making a decision about a population parameter based on sample data. It introduces the concepts of null hypothesis, alternative hypothesis, test statistic, p-value, significance level, type I error, type II error, power, etc. It explains how to conduct and interpret hypothesis tests for the mean, proportion, difference of means, difference of proportions, etc. It also discusses the relationship between hypothesis testing and confidence intervals and how to choose between one-tailed and two-tailed tests.

### Analysis of variance

This chapter explains the technique for comparing means of several groups. It defines analysis of variance (ANOVA) as a method of testing whether there is a significant difference among the means of three or more populations. It introduces the concepts of one-way ANOVA, two-way ANOVA, F-test, sum of squares, mean square, etc. It explains how to perform and interpret one-way ANOVA and two-way ANOVA using the ANOVA table and the F-distribution. It also discusses the assumptions and limitations of ANOVA and how to check them using residual analysis.

### Chi-square tests

This chapter describes the tests for goodness-of-fit, independence, and homogeneity. It defines chi-square test as a method of testing whether there is a significant difference between observed and expected frequencies in a contingency table. It introduces the concepts of chi-square distribution, degrees of freedom, expected frequency, etc. It explains how to perform and interpret chi-square test for goodness-of-fit, chi-square test for independence, and chi-square test for homogeneity using the chi-square statistic and the p-value. It also discusses the assumptions and limitations of chi-square test and how to deal with them using Yates' correction or Fisher's exact test.

## How to download the book for free?

If you are interested in reading An Introduction to Statistics and Probability by Nurul Islam, you might be wondering how to download it for free. There are several ways to do that:

You can visit the website of World University of Bangladesh (WUB), where Nurul Islam is currently working as a Pro-Vice Chancellor. The website has a link to download the PDF version of the book from their library section. You can also find other books by Nurul Islam on this website.

You can visit the website of Scribd, which is a digital library that hosts millions of books, documents, audiobooks, podcasts, etc. The website has a link to download or read online the PDF version of the book. You can also find other books on statistics and probability on this website.

You can visit the website of vBook.pub, which is an online platform that allows users to upload and share PDF files. The website has a link to download or view the PDF version of the book. You can also find other related documents on this website.

However, before you download or access any book or document from these websites, you should be aware of some potential issues:

You might need to create an account or sign up for a free trial to access some features or content on these websites.

You might encounter some ads or pop-ups that might be annoying or harmful to your device.

You might violate some copyright laws or terms of service by downloading or sharing unauthorized or pirated content.

You might compromise the quality or accuracy of the content by downloading or viewing scanned or converted PDF files.

Therefore, we recommend that you use these websites with caution and discretion. Alternatively, you can buy or borrow a hard copy of the book from a bookstore or library near you.

## Conclusion

In conclusion, An Introduction to Statistics and Probability by Nurul Islam is a great textbook for anyone who wants to learn the fundamentals and applications of statistics and probability. The book covers all the essential topics in a clear and concise manner, with plenty of examples, exercises, and illustrations. The book is suitable for students, teachers, researchers, and practitioners in various fields and domains. The book is also available for free download from various sources, but you should be careful and responsible when using them. We hope that this article has given you a useful overview of what this book is about, why it is useful, what it covers, and how you can download it for free.

## FAQs

Here are some frequently asked questions and answers about the book:

Who is the author of the book?The author of the book is Nurul Islam, who is a former professor of statistics at the University of Dhaka and a current Pro-Vice Chancellor at the World University of Bangladesh. He is also an elected member of the International Statistical Institute and the President of the Bangladesh Statistical Association. He has written several books and papers on statistics and probability.

What is the edition and publication year of the book?The book is in its fourth revised edition, which was published in 2016 by Mullick & Brothers, a renowned publisher in Bangladesh.

How many pages and chapters does the book have?The book has 374 pages and 15 chapters. It also has appendices on mathematical review, statistical tables, answers to selected exercises, and a glossary of terms.

What are the prerequisites for reading the book?The book assumes that the reader has some basic knowledge of mathematics, such as algebra, calculus, geometry, etc. The book also provides a mathematical review in the appendix for reference.

How can I get a hard copy of the book?You can buy or borrow a hard copy of the book from a bookstore or library near you. You can also order it online from various websites, such as Amazon, Flipkart, Rokomari, etc.

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